Automatic lubrication in the lathe turning process
What is the turning?
The turning process consists of a chip removal process, in which the workpiece is fixed to a spindle and placed in rotation while the cutting tool moves along the workpiece giving it the desired shape.
This processing is performed when you want to obtain special pieces, such as grooves, holes and threads, and involves two main steps: roughing and finishing.
During the roughing the material is removed coarsely, while in the finishing phase the workpiece is shaped to size, so as to reduce it to the shape, size and roughness you want to obtain.
The different types of lathe
The lathe is one of humanity’s oldest machine, but it is still among the most used to perform the turning process, even if today is increasingly replaced by its evolution, represented by machines that can be defined as real CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining centers, in which the turning process is fully automated and controlled by a computer.
For metal working there are different types of lathe (horizontal, vertical, multi-spindle), but all the models have a common feature: the workpiece is fixed to a spindle, which thanks to the operation of an electric motor performs a rotatory movement thanks to which the actual machining is carried out.
Lubrication systems for the lathe turning process
After an introduction on what is the turning and the different types of machines, let’s now see in detail the role of automatic lubrication for the different components of the lathe that are involved during this process.
During the turning process, different components of the machine tool used are involved and subjected to an high mechanical effort, such as spindle, ball screws, ball screws, skids and sliding guides.
The spindle rotates at very high speeds, creating a strong overheating between the parts that come into contact.
In this case an air/oil lubrication system is required, which is able to provide a continuous flow of air-oil mixture to lubricate and at the same time cool the surfaces that come into contact, in order to prevent wear and avoid the overheating which would jeopardise the entire working process.
For ball screws it is necessary instead a system with 33V single line injectors, that is able to provide oil or fluid grease directly on the point while maintaining a thin lubricant film that wraps the moving parts.
A grease lubrication system, which has a higher consistency and allows the movement of the workpiece during the working process, is indicated for skids and sliding guides, since it has to support an higher load.
The different types of lubrication are designed according to the functions of the components of the lathe, and are essential to ensure maximum operation of the machinery in order to get optimal success of the turning process.